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By V. P. Evangelou

A superb wisdom base in soil and water chemistry -the excellent uncomplicated textual content for college kids of the environmental sciences In Environmental Soil and Water Chemistry, best soil and water authority V. P. Evangelou offers a whole evaluate of the rules and purposes of soil technology, addressing the topic through viewing the interactions among soil and water as a foundation for realizing the character, quantity, and remedy of polluted soil and water. The textual content opens with a dialogue of principles-the primary tenets of chemistry had to comprehend soil and water caliber and therapy of polluted resources-and maintains with a glance at functions for the regulate and remedy of soil and water. appropriate for complex undergraduates and starting graduate scholars, this wide, well timed quantity covers: * Water chemistry and mineral solubility; soil minerals and floor chemical houses and their habit; and electrochemistry and kinetics * The keep an eye on of agricultural chemical toxins and land disturbance pollutants; colloids and shipping tactics in soils; and applied sciences for measuring caliber and executing remedy * particular chemical contaminants and the methods for his or her neutralization In a global the place chemical toxins pose a grave chance to the earth's ordinary assets, Environmental Soil and Water Chemistry deals scholars either a good textbook and a convenient reference at the vast spectrum of environmental difficulties they're going to confront outdoors the study room.

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Sample text

A chemical bond between two elements takes place when the elements donate electrons to each other so that all frontier electrons are paired. In the case of water, the oxygen's two unpaired electrons are paired by bonding with two hydrogens, each donating an electron. After the covalent bonds of the oxygen with the two hydrogens are formed, the oxygen has four sets of paired electrons and each hydrogen has one set of paired electrons. This makes the water molecule stable. Paired electrons exert repulsive forces against each other.

For most situations, H+ in the denominator can be ignored whenever it is less than 10% of HA; H+ in the denominator will turn out to be less than 10% of HA whenever (HA)jnit is at least 100 times greater than Ka. For the problem given above (HA) = (1000 x Ka); thus, H+ in the denominator can be ignored. 2% dissociated. The degree of dissociation depends on the concentration of HAinit" As the concentration of HAinit is decreased, a larger fraction of it must dissociate to satisfy the equilibrium conditions.

1) where Yj is the single-ion activity coefficient of ionic species j and mj is the molar concentration of species j. The single-ion activity coefficient is estimated by the equations shown below. 2) 1= 112 L~2 mj j=l where Zj and mj are the charge and molar concentration of the ionic species (Sposito, 1981c; 1984b). 33 in water at 25°C; a = adjustable parameter corresponding to the size of the ion. There are several equations for estimating single-ion activity coefficients. 1. 3. 1. 5 Davies Source: Stumm and Morgan, 1970.

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