By Atul Sharma, Sanjay Kumar Kar
This ebook stocks the newest advancements and advances in fabrics and strategies enthusiastic about the strength iteration, transmission, distribution and garage. Chapters are written by way of researchers within the power and fabrics field.
Topics comprise, yet will not be restricted to, power from biomass, bio-gas and bio-fuels; sun, wind, geothermal, hydro strength, wave power; energy-transmission, distribution and garage; energy-efficient lights constructions; power sustainability; hydrogen and gasoline cells; strength coverage for brand spanking new and renewable strength applied sciences and schooling for sustainable power development.
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The silicon crystal panels are more suitable for outdoor applications. The higher penetration of sunlight into the solar cell results in high efficiency. The conversion efficiency of single-crystalline solar module is about 15–20 % (Li et al. 1992). However, the fabrication of single solar cell is a time-consuming process, complex, and expensive. The performance of monocrystalline solar cells is most affected as the temperature increases. However, the life span of these solar cells is large compared to other solar cells.
1 Single-Crystal Silicon Solar Cell Single-crystal silicon cells are the oldest in the field of solar cells. The crystalline solar cell is fabricated from the CZ method (Li et al. 1992). In this method, high-purity silicon is melted in a crucible. Some doping is added to improve the conductivity of the semiconductor. Generally, boron or phosphorous is used as a dopant. A seed crystal is dipped into the molten silicon and pulled upward and rotates continuously. After some time, single silicon ingot is formed from the melting silicon.
This is because of the shortage of food storage facilities and under utilization of advanced technologies for food processing. 6 million tonnes owned by Food Corporation of India (FCI) and state agencies with an annual production of 250 million tonnes of rice and wheat alone. Hence, the storage facilities need to be enormously expanded. With the passing of Food Security Bill, the need for food storage has come to limelight. Increase in population and reduction in worldwide food production has given us less options either to produce more food or to reduce the losses by preserving or storing.