By International Energy Agency
Electrical energy industry reform has essentially replaced the surroundings for holding trustworthy and safe energy offers, making a extra built-in and dynamic community atmosphere with new real-time demanding situations for trustworthy and safe transmission approach op
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Extra info for Energy Market Experience Learning from the Blackouts: Transmission System Security in Competitive Electricity Markets
Impedance relays are designed to detect currents and voltages outside normal operating parameters, resulting from system faults, and to disconnect transmission lines before they suffer damage. A relay is installed at each end of a transmission line, with each relay monitoring up to 3 zones or lengths of transmission line. Zone 1 is set to monitor 80% of the line next to the relay and to trip with no time delay when a fault is detected. Zone 2 is set to monitor the entire line and slightly beyond, and to trip with a slight delay when a fault is detected, while Zone 3 is set to monitor well beyond the end of the line and act more like a remote relay or back-up circuit breaker.
As a result, decisions relating to network use and investments affecting network operation and performance that were once made in a centrally coordinated way within vertically integrated utilities are made by a number of independent market participants. Decentralised decision-making has fundamentally changed utilisation of transmission networks. Previously stable and relatively predictable patterns of network use have in many cases been replaced with less predictable usage, greater volatility of flows and greater use of long-distance transportation, reflecting growing inter-regional trade.
Operating Practices Operating practices are designed to ensure that transmission systems are operated within the security bounds established by the N-1 standard. Typically, these practices are built around an iterative process that generally involves contingency assessment and planning, on-going monitoring of system operation and intervention as required to maintain system security. Contingency assessment and planning is the first step and involves analysis and assessment of expected operating conditions based on anticipated power flows within and between system operator control areas.