Download Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste: The Social Science of by Carl A. Zimring, William L. (Laurens) Rathje PDF

By Carl A. Zimring, William L. (Laurens) Rathje

Archaeologists and anthropologists have lengthy studied artifacts of refuse from the far-off previous as a portal into old civilizations, yet interpreting what we throw away this present day tells a narrative in actual time and turns into a massive and great tool for tutorial research. Trash is studied via behavioral scientists who use facts com­piled from the exploration of dumpsters to higher comprehend our glossy society and tradition. Why does the typical American loved ones ship 470 kilos of uneaten nutrients to the rubbish can on an annual foundation? How do diverse societies all over the world focus on their rubbish in those bothered environmental occasions? How does our trash supply perception into our attitudes approximately gender, type, faith, and paintings? The Encyclopedia of intake and Waste explores the subject throughout a number of disciplines in the social sciences and levels extra to incorporate enterprise, consumerism, environmentalism, and advertising to include a great reference for educational and public libraries.

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S. Agency for International Development for developing systems of wastewater reuse, including raising the standards of treatment plants. The potential dangers of wastewater irrigation include the contamination of groundwater through nitrates; the build up in the soil of heavy metals and other chemical pollutants; the establishment of disease vectors; excess growth of algae and other vegetation in wastewater-carrying canals; and health risks to workers with prolonged contact with untreated wastewater or to consumers of fresh pro- Africa, North 9 duce irrigated with disease-carrying water.

In 1926, a Norwegian chemist, Erik Rotheim, invented the first aerosol spray can. Rotheim’s invention forced liquid contained in a canister out of a small hole, emerging as an aerosol or mist when the container’s valve was opened. S. company for 100,000 Norwegian kroner, but it was not until 1939, when Julian S. Kahn received a patent for a disposable spray can, that aerosol sprays became commercially viable. S. government sought a convenient means to combat the malaria-carrying mosquitoes besieging troops in the Pacific.

2010: American scientist Jared Diamond estimates that America’s consumption of natural resources, combined with its output of wastes, is 32 times higher than in the developing world. 2011: Italy’s Environmental Ministry enacts a ban on polythene shopping bags in an attempt to reduce plastic waste. The European Union’s (EU) Commissioner for the Environment opens an online consultation to assess EU citizens’ opinion of taxing or outright banning plastic shopping bags across the continent. 2011: The international terrorist Osama bin Laden is found and killed in a residential neighborhood in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

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