By Yoshihiro Baba, Vladimir A. Rakov
"Presents present study into electromagnetic computation theories with specific emphasis on Finite-Difference Time-Domain procedure This e-book is the 1st to consolidate present examine and to check the theories of electromagnetic computation equipment relating to lightning surge safeguard. The authors introduce and evaluate current electromagnetic computation tools comparable to the tactic of moments (MOM), the partial point similar circuit (PEEC), the finite point technique (FEM), the transmission-line modeling (TLM) approach, and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) procedure. the applying of FDTD technique to lightning safeguard experiences is a subject that has matured via many useful purposes some time past decade, and the authors clarify the derivation of Maxwell's equations required by means of the FDTD, and modeling of assorted electric parts wanted in computing lightning electromagnetic fields and surges with the FDTD technique. The publication describes the appliance of FDTD solution to present and rising difficulties of lightning surge security of regularly extra complicated installations, quite in serious infrastructures of strength and knowledge, equivalent to overhead energy strains, air-insulated sub-stations, wind turbine generator towers and telecommunication towers. either authors are the world over famous specialists within the sector of lightning examine and this is often the 1st ebook to offer present examine in lightning surge defense Examines intimately why lightning surges happen and what might be performed to guard opposed to them contains theories of electromagnetic computation tools and lots of examples in their program followed by means of a pattern published software in line with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) procedure written in C++ software "-- Read more...
Presents present study into electromagnetic computation theories with specific emphasis on Finite-Difference Time-Domain strategy
This publication is the 1st to consolidate present examine and to check the theories of electromagnetic computation equipment when it comes to lightning surge protection.
Read Online or Download Electromagnetic computation methods for lightning surge protection studies PDF
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Extra info for Electromagnetic computation methods for lightning surge protection studies
Furthermore, representation of a nonlinear element such as a surge arrester is explained. 1. The electric field components are placed at the midpoints of the sides of cells: Ex components are placed at the midpoints of sides oriented in the x-direction, Ey components are placed at the midpoints of y-directed sides, and Ez components are placed at the midpoints of z-directed sides. The magnetic field components are placed at the centers of the faces of the cubic or rectangular parallelepiped cells and are oriented normal to the faces: Hx components are placed at the center points on yz-faces, Hy components are placed at the center points on zx-faces, and Hz components are placed at the center points on xy-faces.
The initial field peak is due to the radiation component of the total field and, hence, decreases inversely with distance in the absence of significant propagation effects (attenuation and dispersion due to lossy ground). 11. The data of Lin et al. (1979) suggest that, at a distance of 50 km and beyond, both electric and magnetic field waveshapes are dominated by their respective radiation components. 12 shows a typical vertical electric field waveform measured for dart-leader– return-stroke sequences in triggered lightning at 50 m (Rakov and Uman 1998).
Therefore, smaller grounding impedance is also desirable for a tall tower. Characteristic impedance of a long horizontal wire above a flat ground with sufficiently high conductivity is defined as the ratio of the voltage to the current traveling along the wire. It is usually a real number, which corresponds to the case of lossless conductor. 21 Conceptual pictures of axial electric fields around horizontal and vertical wires above flat, perfectly conducting ground. where L is the inductance of the wire per unit length, C is the capacitance (to ground) per unit length, μ0 is the permeability of air, and ε0 is the permittivity of air.