By S. Birch
Sarah Birch assesses the impression of electoral procedure layout on political swap in post-communist Europe. because the cave in of communism in primary and japanese Europe among 1989 and 1991, nearly all of the states within the quarter have undertaken major electoral reform. This learn strains the a number of hyperlinks among the evolution of electoral platforms and political swap and establishes styles within the results of electoral approach layout on post-communist advancements.
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Additional resources for Electoral Systems and Political Transformation in Post-Communist Europe (One Europe or Several?)
The Albanian system adopted in 1991 was also of the linked variety, though it was unusual in being based on a single vote rather than two separate votes for the two component parts of the system. The unlinked mixed system most distinctive of the post-communist region was first adopted in Bulgaria in June of 1990, before spreading to Georgia (October 1990), Croatia (1992), Lithuania (1992), Yugoslavia (1992), Russia (1993), Armenia (1995), Ukraine (1998), and Macedonia (1998). Since its ‘invention’ in Eastern Europe, the unlinked mixed system has been taken up by states as diverse as Japan, Taiwan, Cameroon, Guatemala, and others, making it the fastest-growing electoral system type in the world today.
1996 Czech Rep. 1998 Czech Rep. 2002 200 200 200 200 200 8ϩ1 8ϩ1 8ϩ1 8ϩ1 14 Variable Variable Variable Variable None 100 100 100 100 100 5 5 5♣ 5♣ 5♣ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes — — — — — Estonia 1992 Estonia 1995 Estonia 1999 101 101 101 12 ϩ 1 11 ϩ 1 11 ϩ 1 Variable Variable Variable 100 100 100 None** None** None** Yes Yes Yes — — — Bosnia & H. 1996 Bosnia & H. 1998 Bosnia & H. 2000 Bosnia & H. 2002 Number Proporof upper- tion PR tier seats seats (%) SinglePreferparty ences threshold in PR (first tier list PR seats)♣ voting?
5 By 2002 only just over half the cases in this dataset (11) capped the amount parties could spend to publicize themselves at election time. Most, however, require disclosure of campaign-related (or general) expenses, which is not surprising given that the parties are to a large extent funded by public money. Post-Communist Electoral Systems: Design and Measurement 39 Campaign finance regulations differ from many other aspects of the electoral regime in that they are more difficult to institutionalize effectively.