By Tom M. Fenchel
This e-book is written for ecologists and protozoologists. Ecologists who examine environments and biotic groups during which protozoa are im portant should still locate this publication specially beneficial. over the past decade it has turn into transparent that protozoa play vital roles in average eco platforms, yet few ecologists have a sense for the practical houses and the range of those organisms. Protozoa pose or exemplify many common difficulties of inhabitants and group ecology, and of evo lutionary biology. In such a lot respects the final ecological homes of protozoa aren't essentially assorted from these of bigger organisms; but, as a result of their small measurement, brief new release occasions, and ubiquitous oc currence they generally current ecological phenomena in a brand new and dif ferent mild. To this could be further that protozoa are well-suited for experimental paintings. regardless of those merits, the research of protozoa has performed a comparatively modest function within the improvement of ecology and ev olutionary biology, basically, i think, simply because so much ecologists are unusual with those organisms. i am hoping this publication will allure extra cognizance to those favorable features of protozoa. I additionally wish that this booklet may well make protozoologists conscious of new points in their puppy organisms. for a very long time (that is, till the joys damental contrast among prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells used to be rec ognized) protozoa have been believed to symbolize the best kind of lifestyles. They have been accordingly commonly used for the experimental examine of simple questions of phone biology.
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Extra resources for Ecology of Protozoa: The Biology of Free-living Phagotrophic Protists
In other types of pseudopodia, locomotion takes place by the extension of a pseudopod, attachment to the substratum, and eventually a contraction of the pseudopod. The details of the process, however, are often poorly understood. Amoeboid motility is much slower than that of ciliary swimming; velocities of 5 to 20 JLm/sec are typical. Actomyosin microfilaments and, in some cases, pseudopodia-like structures are also involved in phagocytosis and pinocytosis and this motile principle is also responsible for the movements of organelles within the cells.
However, in sarcodines, phagocytOSiS seems to take place anywhere on the cell surface. , 1983). 1 General considerations 33 induction of phagocytosis is, at least in part, due to mechanical stimulus by food particles. , 1965). The newly formed food vacuole may be subject to some water absorption, after which it fuses with primary lysosomes to form secondary lysosomes in which hydrolytiC degradation of the food particles takes place. The dissolved nutrients are removed from the vacuole through pinocytotic vesicles.
The flow past a filter feeder is larger when the organism is attached to a surface than when it is swimming. This is because the thrust of the flagellum or cilia of a swimming organism must balance the viscous drag of the cell as it moves through the water. In accordance with this, most filter-feeding protozoa tend to attach to a solid object when feeding. , many ciliates such as Cyclidium or Euplotes). This, however, poses another problem for the protozoan, namely, the viscous drag due to the proximity of a solid surface, an effect which could slow the water flow considerably (Fenchel, 1986a).