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A tripartite division of Un3áha (the present lyula, Vwawa, and Igamba) was finally settled upon with each subdivi­ sion ruled by a government-recognized chief who presided over a local court. Under each chief served headmen, salaried tax collectors who covered areas occupied by up to 500 families (Brock 1966). These areas were not functionally tied by kinship bonds or patterns of social interaction in marked contrast to the postindependence development of local government. At inde­ pendence, Mbozi subdistrict (of Mbeya District) consisted of three local courts in Unyiha plus two courts in the Namwanga chiefdom and a court at Kamsamba near Lake Rukwa which was subsidiary to the Namwanga chief.

The age village which forms such a distinct cultural feature among the Nyakyusa and Ngonde is not found among the Ndali (Wilson 1958). Historically, the groups differ in that the Ngonde had a centralized chieftainship related to to the development of trade for ivory, while the Nyakyusa, like 29 The People the Nyiha, maintained many small independent chiefdoms until European penetration. Tradition suggests that both the Nyakyusa and Ngonde chiefs came from Ukinga and established hegemony over peoples of north Nyasa.

49 The People Return of some of the ex-German farms to the Native Authority, and consolidation of others into economic units brought the total number of estates to 40 in the middle 1950s. 3). The history of the European and Asian in Mbozi is explored in detail in Chapter 6. A combination of population pressure in Rungwe District (east of Mbozi) and job opportunities on the estates attracted enterprising Nyakyusa and Ndali men to Mbozi. In 1938, some 1800 were regularly employed on the Mbozi coffee estates, 65% of which were Nyakyusa (Tanganyika ARPC 1938:82).

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