By Kevin Hefferan, John O'Brien
Minerals and rocks shape the basis of geologic reviews. very good textbooks presently exist in mineralogy, igneous petrology, sedimentary petrology and metamorphic petrology. it isn't our goal to compete with those textbooks. besides the fact that, many universities have compressed separate mineralogy and petrology classes right into a one- or two-semester Earth fabrics direction. almost immediately, no textbook properly addresses the desires of an Earth fabrics path. we've constructed a textbook that encompasses the research of minerals, rocks in addition to soil and water. This Earth fabrics textbook is geared in the direction of a one- or two-semester Earth fabrics path, a mixed mineralogy and petrology path, and will even be utilized by environmental scientists, engineering geologists, planners and laypersons attracted to studying approximately minerals, rocks, soil and water in a entire framework. we now have tried to create a readable, good illustrated textbook that's understandable and that weaves varied disciplines into one cohesive fabric.Key positive aspects of this ebook include:Equal assurance of mineralogy, sedimentary petrology, igneous petrology and metamorphic petrologyCopious box examples and neighborhood relationships with photos that illustrate the options discussedNumerous case experiences to teach the makes use of of earth fabrics as assets and their primary position in our lives and the worldwide economic climate, and their relation to traditional and human-induced hazardsThe integration of earth fabrics right into a cohesive process-based earth platforms framework2 colour all through with a sixty four pages four colour sectionA significant other site is offered for this name at www.wiley.com/go/hefferan/earthmaterials.
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Extra info for Earth Materials
This helps to explain why the listed atomic masses for each element do not always approximate the whole numbers produced when one adds the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. The general isotope symbol for the nucleus of an atom expresses its atomic number to the lower left of its symbol, the number of neu- U 146 Stable isotopes have stable nuclei that tend to remain unchanged; they retain the same number of protons and neutrons over time. On the other hand, radioactive isotopes have unstable nuclear configurations (numbers of protons and neutrons) that spontaneously change over time via radioactive decay processes, until they achieve stable nuclear configurations.
Unlike the strong electron-sharing bonds of covalently bonded substances, or the sometimes strong electrostatic bonds of ionically bonded substances, metallic bonds are rather weak, less permanent and easily broken and reformed. Because the valence electrons are not strongly held by any of the partial atoms, they are easily moved in response to stress or in response to an electric field. Many good examples of metallic bonding exist in the native metals such as native gold (Au), native silver (Ag), and native copper (Cu).
These elements attract two additional electrons into their highest principal quantum levels to achieve a stable electron configuration. For example, oxygen adds two electrons to become the divalent cation O−2. With the exception of oxygen, however, the column 16 elements display other ionization states as well, especially when they react chemically with oxygen, as will be discussed later in this chapter. Sulfur and the other VIA elements are also quite electronegative, with strong electron affinities, so that they tend to attract two electrons to achieve a stable configuration and become divalent anions such as S−2; but in the presence of oxygen these ele- • • ments may lose electrons and become cations such as S+6.