By Gudrun Kochendörfer-Lucius, Boris Pleskovic
The Berlin Workshop sequence 2007 offers chosen papers from conferences held September 6??8, 2004, on the seventh Annual discussion board co-hosted by means of InWEnt and the realm financial institution in training for the Bank's international improvement file. This quantity offers papers from the periods on fairness and improvement, protecting matters on the subject of the position of governments within the promoting of fairness, equity-enhancing social alterations, development effective welfare states, lowering worldwide inequalities, and integration and inequality within the new Europe.
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Additional info for Development and the Next Generation: Berlin Workshop Series 2007 (Berlin Workshop)
The other ratio plotted in figures 5 to 7 is of those ages 20–24 (a typical age for entering the formal labor market) and those ages 60–64 (a typical age for retiring, at least in industrialized countries). Hence, as a rough approximation, this ratio could possibly describe labor force replacement (those entering divided by those leaving). 0, the labor force is growing. In all three countries, the labor force grew strongly between 1950 and the present. 0 in Singapore around 2020. That is not likely to happen in China and Thailand until around 2030.
In effect, life choices, or the “opportunity set,” of most individuals seem to be almost fully determined before they reach age 20 and often very much earlier in many developing countries. On top of the need for adequate macroeconomic policies, enhancing the development potential of a country therefore requires childhood- and youth-oriented policies that will maximize the opportunity set within which young people will be able to choose how they want to live their economic lives. Key opportunities, or the lack thereof, exist in the earliest part of the life cycle and affect future economic achievements, with each dimension calling for different types of policies.
The data are five-year age groups from 1950 to 2050 as given by the UN (1999) estimates and projections. Figure 3 shows FIGURE 3. A 3-D Plot of the Total Population of China (without Hong Kong) for Men and Women Combined, by Five-Year Age Groups and Five-Year Time Steps, 1950–2050 China Total Population Population, thousands 70 60 50 40 30 20 Source: Lutz and Sanderson (2005). 2010 1990 20–24 10–14 0–4 1950 1970 40–44 Age 30–34 60–64 50–54 80+ 70–74 2050 0 2030 10 NEW WAYS OF CAPTURING THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND EDUCATION DYNAMICS | 45 FIGURE 4.