By J. Anderson, Jens Hoff
Record of Figures --
List of Tables --
Political Engagement --
Electoral Participation --
Political events --
Participation in Voluntary institutions --
Participation in alternate Unions --
Workplace Democracy in Scandinavia --
User Participation in Scandinavia: the 'third citizenship'? --
Political motion and Political mistrust --
Marginalization and Citizenship --
Reluctant Europeans: The Scandinavians and the problem of the eu Union --
Immigrants, Refugees, and Citizenship in Scandinavia --
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Extra resources for Democracy and citizenship in Scandinavia
5 per cent. points from 1960–64 to 1985–89, with a downward trend continuing in the 1990s (Lane and Ersson 1991: 182; Topf 1995a; IDEA 1997; Franklin 1996; Lijphart 2000). Until recently, these emerging trends were typically ignored (in Denmark) or interpreted as deviations explained by short-term factors relating to an individual election (Aardal and Valen 1995: ch. 3; Narud and Valen 1998). Only Swedish researchers were somewhat concerned about the long-term trends. However, this view has changed markedly in recent years, further stimulated by the low levels of participation in local and European elections, and attention is increasingly directed to long-term interpretations and explanations of the decline (Valen, Aardal and Berglund 1996; Bjørklund 1999: ch.
Like the USA, the Scandinavian countries have traditionally been regarded as strongholds of voluntary associations, but what is the reality behind this folklore? Chapter 6 deals more specifically with participation in trade unions. Important questions here are whether Scandinavian trade unions have been resistant to the decline in trade unionism found in most European countries. And are there any costs of the unusually high (but perhaps less ‘voluntary’) unionization in Sweden and Denmark? The following three chapters are concerned with ‘new’ forms of political participation.
Finnish citizens living outside Finland have been omitted. 5 per cent. points from 1960–64 to 1985–89, with a downward trend continuing in the 1990s (Lane and Ersson 1991: 182; Topf 1995a; IDEA 1997; Franklin 1996; Lijphart 2000). Until recently, these emerging trends were typically ignored (in Denmark) or interpreted as deviations explained by short-term factors relating to an individual election (Aardal and Valen 1995: ch. 3; Narud and Valen 1998). Only Swedish researchers were somewhat concerned about the long-term trends.