By Theodore D. Wachs, Robert Plomin
In line with papers awarded at a convention subsidized by means of the yank mental organization, Purdue collage, and Pennsylvania kingdom college, held in November 1989.
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Extra resources for Conceptualization and Measurement of Organism-Environment Interaction
If genetic or environmental sources of variance differ across populations or change in a population across time, the relative magnitude of genetic influence can change, as can other descriptive statistics such as means or variances. Although quantitative genetic parameter estimates are specific to a particular sample and by no means refer to all possible combinations of genotypes and environments, it is a reasonable first step toward understanding the origins of individual differences to study the combinations of genotypes and environments that exist in a representative sample.
Set formation was followed by 5 days of set breaking. The subject’s least preferred first choice box was baited on every trial. The reward could now be obtained by opening only a single box if the previously developed search pattern was broken. Subjects were allowed to open and reopen all boxes during this phase. Testing ended with 5 days of forced set breaking. Again, the nonpreferred box was always baited. However, only a single choice was allowed on each trial. Unlike dental eruption and learning set, which revealed complex interactions of maternal and paternal risk, prenatal maternal stress significantly affected perseveration (see Figure 4), whereas reproductive risk had neither main nor interactive effects.
In quantitative genetics, the theory of multiple genetic and environmentalinfluences that has been applied to the study of behavior, two concepts are especially relevant to this interface: genotype-environment (G X E) interaction and genotype-environment correlation. These concepts are analogous to the distinction between interaction and correlations in the study of organism-environment interaction (see chap. 1). As is the case for other quantitative genetic parameters, G X E and genotype-environment correlation refer to “anonymous” components of variance of measured outcomes in the population rather than to interactions and correlations between specific genes and environmental factors or to the processes by which genetic influence emerges for an outcome measure.