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By E. M Talbott

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During the acceleration cycle, output torque can peak at 3 to 5 times full load torque. Utilities may not permit full voltage starting of motors due to the high kVA inrush. Some limit starting current to a fixed percent of full load. Others have a demand charge in their rates and this is determined by peak power requirements. 2 Reduced Voltage Starting Reduced voltage starting can be implemented by any one of several methods, including star/delta connection of three-phase motors, primary resistive or reactive circuits, auto transformers and solid state rms voltage reduction.

Page 22 Figure 3-3 Double Acting Reciprocating Compressors, Two Stage Courtesy Gardner-Denver Co. type are lower initial cost, lower installation and maintenance costs, reduced vibration, smaller size, and delivery of uniform, minimally pulsing air flow. The double helical screw units are available in oil flooded and nonlubricated designs, the lubricated ones being more efficient and less costly to purchase and operate. The oil flooded design is illustrated in Figure 3-4A. Air is compressed by the two rotating, intermeshing rotors.

This permits reduction and control of inrush current and mechanical shock to the motor and load. In the simplest form, the scr's are bypassed after the motor reaches running speed. Normally, all standard control features are implemented as part of the package. 3 Variable Voltage for Starting and Reduced Load Some more recent designs of solid state starters use the same scr's to control the voltage to the motor while operating at full speed under reduced loads. These can reduce motor losses significantly when operating 5 to 50 hp motors at reduced loads.

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