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By Marc Galanter

Can a democratic society pursue a coverage of compensatory discrimination with no abandoning equality or sliding right into a method of workforce quotas? For over thirty years, India has been engaged in a major attempt to combine "untouchables" and different oppressed peoples into the mainstream of Indian lifestyles. This booklet is the 1st complete research of the Indian adventure with regulations of systematic preferential remedy. Galanter incorporates a dialogue of the relation of the courts to public coverage in his research of the alternatives and tensions within the Indian rules of compensatory choice.

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Discussion of untouchability propels us into problems of nomenclature which condense intense controversies over the identity of these groups and over the characterization of their relation to the bulk of the Hindu population. 24.  For the moment it suffices to note that there is no other general term for the practice of setting apart a segment at a lower end of the caste order and that "untouchability" has been adopted as a salient category for public policy: the Constitution declares its abolition, and successive governments have promised to end it summarily.

British rule shattered the earlier patterns of dominance and accommodation, permitting, if not fostering, open rivalry that found outlets in new political arenas. 20. The concern of Muslims over the loss of their former preeminence was compounded by the feeling that they were falling behind the Hindus in modem callings and opportunities and were being reduced to a subordinate position.  In 1909 when the Minto­Morley reforms were promulgated, separate electorates were provided for Muslims. At this point, the condition of the untouchables­­as they were coming to be called 21.

Exclusion from any honorable, and most profitable, employment and relegation to dirty or menial occupations. Residential segregation, typically in a more extreme form than the segregation of other groups, by requiring them to remain outside the village. Denial of access to services such as those provided by barbers, laundrymen, restaurants, shops, and theaters or requiring the use of separate utensils and facilities within such places. Restrictions on style of life, especially in the use of goods indicating comfort or luxury.

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