By Angelo Rivetti
CMOS: Front-End Electronics for Radiation Sensors deals a complete advent to built-in front-end electronics for radiation detectors, targeting units that trap person debris or photons and are utilized in nuclear and excessive strength physics, house instrumentation, scientific physics, fatherland safeguard, and similar fields.
Emphasizing useful layout and implementation, this book:
- Covers the elemental ideas of sign processing for radiation detectors
- Discusses the appropriate analog construction blocks utilized in the front-end electronics
- Employs systematically vulnerable and reasonable inversion regimes in circuit analysis
- Makes complicated themes similar to noise and circuit-weighting features extra accessible
- Includes numerical examples the place appropriate
CMOS: Front-End Electronics for Radiation Sensors presents really expert wisdom formerly acquired purely in the course of the learn of a number of technical and medical papers. it really is a fantastic textual content for college kids of physics and electronics engineering, in addition to an invaluable reference for skilled practitioners.
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Additional info for CMOS : front-end electronics for radiation sensors
The current rises abruptly to the peak value, given by the sum of the currents induced by the two carriers, and stops immediately as the charges reach their electrodes. Observe that the total induced charge is q and not 2q. Consider now the more general case in which the mobility of the charges is different. Suppose, for instance, that the positive carrier is slower and that µ p = µn /2. 4 Examples of possible induced signals in a radiation sensor. See text for details. The charges have to travel the same distance, but now the positive carrier takes twice as much the time than the negative one.
The low atomic number of Silicon (Z = 14) makes it not suitable to detect efficiently photons of energy above 30 keV. For higher energy photons, Germanium-based detectors are employed. For Germanium detectors, cooling with liquid Nitrogen is mandatory, while for Si(Li) it is desirable to optimize the performance. This has stimulated the research of alternative solutions that can combine good detection efficiency for high energy photons with room temperature operation. Compound semiconductor materials are used to this end , with Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) having emerged as the one offering the best trade-offs between energy resolution, ease of operation and possibility of fabricating fairly large crystals, albeit the single crystal size is not comparable with the one achieved with Si and Ge.
However, while some values of the model parameters are defined only by the last component (such as the capacitance), others, like the signal shape, depend on the behavior of the full chain. The complete system must thus be studied and modeled with adequate care before starting the design of its front-end electronics. 2 EXAMPLE OF RADIATION SENSORS To further understand the applicability and the limits of the model in Fig. 10, we now briefly consider a few examples of sensors. Gas-based detectors are still widely used as they allow us to cover large areas at a fairly low cost.