By Prof. Arie S. Issar, Dr. Mattanyah Zohar (auth.)
When the ?rst version of this e-book used to be released in 2004, the subsequent 12 months 2005 has occurred to were the warmest 12 months because 1880, whilst the ?rst trustworthy all over the world instrumental files got here into existance. Claiming no li- age among the book of our ebook and the temperature checklist, but this list demonstrates the rage of raise within the international floor temperatures in the course of thepast20years,reinforcedbyevidenceofriseofatmosphere’sand oceans’ temperatures, and elevated melting of ice and snow within the arctic and antarctic areas in addition to on mountain tops. these kinds of observations are par- leled via the rise within the volume of warmth trapping gases within the surroundings, inflicting most likely, the worldwide greenhouse influence. on the way to try to expect, what will be the effect of this impact at the at the ordinary and human environments of the close to East, (Figs. 1–1d) the authors followed the announcing that the earlier is the most important for the long run. the sensible end of this precept says that the buying wisdom of the impression of previous weather alterations at the nature and human societies, may possibly enable conclusions in regards to destiny attainable effect of weather adjustments. by means of correlating proxy information of every kind, paleo-sea and lake degrees, paleo-hydrology, pollen pro?les, environmental isotopes in addition to archaeological and historic files, the authors attempted to gather up to attainable of this knowledge.
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Additional info for Climate Change —: Environment and History of the Near East
Any disturbance, such as abnormal dilution of the salty waters by melting waters from the northern ice, or other inﬂuence on the mechanism that might slow down or even stop the sinking would have enormous consequences on the oscillation between the Atlantic ‘highs’ and ‘lows’ and on the ﬂuctuation of the jet stream bringing rain to the western Mediterranean area. If this proves to be correct, the melting of the Arctic ice cap observed in 1999/2000 might slow down the sinking of the Gulf Stream and in its wake bring colder weather to Europe and the Near East over the next few years.
Parthian/Sassanian Roman/Byzantine P. Ptolemaic Period Persian/Hellenistic P. Persian/Hellenistic Persian/Hellenistic Late Period Iron Age II Asyyrian/Neo-Babylon Iron Age Middle/Late Bronze Iron Age I 1000 2000 New Kingdom Middle Kingdom Middle/Late Bronze Age Intermediate Bronze Age Old/Middle Babylonian Old Kingdom Early Bronze Age II/II Early Dynastic I–III Early Bronze Age I Jemdet Nasr Mature Chalcolithic Gawra (N)/Uruk (S) Late Chalcolithic Early Chalcolithic Ubaid (N & S) Middle Chalcolithic Pottery Neolithic A/B Halaf (N)/Ubaid (S) Ceramic Neolithic Pre-Pottery Neolithic B Hassuna/Samarra (north only) 3000 Archaic Period 4000 5000 Akkad/Ur III/Isin Pre Dynastic Period Neolithic Period Early Chalcolithic 6000 7000 Early Bronze Age Various Epi-Paleolithic Cultures Pre-Pottery Neolithic A Natufian Pre-Pottery Neolithic (north only) Early Ceramic Neolithic Aceramic Neolithic Epi-Paleolithic Period Epi-Paleolithic:Kebaran The other system is the “North Atlantic Oscillation” (NAO).
The post-Byzantine/Early Arab Period, and by now have covered a vast area, extending to about 10 km from the shore and reaching, in some cases, a height of about 30 meters. The very recent age of the dunes was deduced from 7 A. Issar, (1961) op. cit. A. Issar, “Geology of the Central Coastal Plain of Israel” IJES 17:16–29 (1968). Z. Reiss and A. Issar, “Subsurface Quaternary Correlations in the Tel Aviv Region” GSI Bulletin 32 (1960). A. Issar, “Stratigraphy and Palaeoclimate of the Pleistocene of Central and Northern Israel” Palaeo 3 29:261–280 (1979).