Download Climate and Political Climate : Environmental Disasters in by Sarah Kate Raphael PDF

By Sarah Kate Raphael

This research examines environmental mess ups within the Levant. the information is drawn from modern resources. the most objective is to figure out the lengthy and temporary repercussions of environmental mess ups at the nearby affairs through the Crusader, Ayyubid and Mamluk classes.

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Extra resources for Climate and Political Climate : Environmental Disasters in the Medieval Levant

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27 In general, droughts can be divided into three types. 1. Meteorological drought: When there is no rain or insufficient rain over a long period; a significant decrease from the climatologically expected and seasonally normal precipitation over a wide area. Agriculture drought: When soil moisture and rainfall are inadequate during the growing season. Extreme crop stress prevents the plants from reaching maturity. Agricultural drought can also be caused by bad timing of rainfall with regard to the growing seasons in an otherwise above-average year of rainfall.

W. ” Nature 267 (1977): 192. 27 Inbar, M. and Bruins, H. J. “Environmental impact of multi-annual drought in the Jordan watershed, Israel,” Land Degradation and Environment 15 (2004):243. 20 chapter one 3. Hydrological drought: Characterized by the shrinkage and drying up of streams and rivers, depletion of water stored in surface reservoirs and lakes, cessation of spring flows and decline of ground water levels. 28 Researchers have tried to find the cause for fluctuations in rainfall, but no definite conclusions have been reached.

D. 1099-1516 (London, 1986), 187; Amar, Z. Agricultural Produce in the Land of Israel in the Middle Ages (Jerusalem, 2000), 65. 24 Watson, A. M. Agriculture Innovation in the Early Islamic World (Cambridge 1983), 20. 25 Shoshan, B. Money, Prices, and Population in Mamluk Egypt, 1382-1517. D dissertation, Princeton University 1977. unpublished, 6. , Minot, N. and Gruhn, P. “Adjustment of wheat production to market reforms in Egypt,” in Food, Agriculture and Economic Policy in the Middle East and North Africa, ed.

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