By David K. Lynch, Kenneth Sassen, David O'C. Starr, Graeme Stephens
Cirrus clouds are excessive, skinny, tropospheric clouds composed predominately of ice. within the final ten years, huge paintings has proven that cirrus is widespread--more universal than formerly believed--and has an important effect on weather and worldwide switch. because the subsequent new release climate satellites are being designed, the impression of cirrus on distant sensing and the worldwide strength funds needs to be well-known and accommodated. This publication, the 1st to be committed totally to cirrus clouds, captures the nation of data of cirrus and serves as a pragmatic guide besides. each one bankruptcy relies on an invited evaluate speak provided at Cirrus, a gathering hosted by means of the Optical Society of the US and co-sponsored by way of the yank Geophysical Union and the yankee Meteorological Society. All points of cirrus clouds are lined, an technique that reaches into diversified fields. issues comprise: the definition of cirrus, cirrus climatologies, nucleation, evolution and dissipation, mixed-phase thermodynamics, crystallinity, orientation mechanisms, dynamics, scattering, radiative move, in situ sampling, techniques that produce or impact cirrus (and vice versa), contrails, and the impression of cirrus on weather.
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Extra info for Cirrus
1995), which consists of a series of uncinus cell heads generating a layer of sheared fallstreaks. The height and time coordinates have been adjusted using the wind speed to yield a 1:1 correspondence in height and distance (time is shown). , at coarser resolution) the main solid cirrus layer. 2. 532 urn polarization diversity lidar backscattering (in arbitrary units) revealing the structure of a cirrus layer created by complexes of cirrus uncinus cells. Data were collected on December 5,1991 during the FIRE IFO II at Coffeeville, Kansas.
14 Cirrus of the laser. Although these technologies are still evolving, it must be recognized that each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Because these instruments are being increasingly relied on to improve our knowledge of cirrus clouds, it is important to consider what these techniques actually measure. In situ instruments have come a long way since the pioneering cirrus cloud studies were carried out over World War II Germany in Luftewaffer fighter planes, amid growing concerns over the military consequences of contrail formation (Weickmann 1947).
The need for these new measurement capabilities has helped to spawn and adapt instrumentation for cirrus research. Sophisticated cloud measurement capabilities using in situ probes on jet aircraft, satellite multispectral imaging, and remote sensing with lidar, short-wavelength radar, and passive radiometers, have all greatly facilitated cirrus cloud research. Major advancements have also been made in the field of numerical cloud modeling. As will be reviewed briefly here and in depth in following chapters, these developments have significantly advanced our knowledge of the characteristic properties of cirrus clouds over the past few decades.