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By Kirk R. Smith

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In this chapter, the principal types of pollutants and their emission factors will be discussed for the fuel/stove combination of most interest-the simple open stove burning wood. Later, in Chapter 8, the important controllable stove and fuel parameters that affect emission factors will be discussed with regard to implementing cleaner-burning stoves and fuels. Although there are many hundreds of separate chemical agents that have been identified in biofuel smoke, this book singles out four for emphasis: carbon monoxide, particulates, polycyclic organic matter, and formaldehyde.

6, it is estimated that before 1990 the country will be using more woodfuel than at any time in its history. S. woodfuel demand by the turn of the century. Woodfuel demand for fireplaces, on the other hand, is expected to continue dropping. Growing along with this use of woodfuel in developed countries was the realization that combustion of wood could lead to significant emissions of air pollutants. A number of studies were commissioned by environmental agencies and others toward the late 1970s.

By 1990, however, it is estimated that more woodfuel will be used than at any time in history. Based on data in USOTA (1980), Hewett et ai. (1981), USDOE (1982), and Lipfert and Lee (1985). Recognition of the Problem 11 developing countries are essentially not addressed by the papers presented. Chapters 2 and 8 discuss in some detail the results of the many investigations undertaken in recent years to explore the emissions characteristics of biofuel combustion. In summary, it seems that biofuels, particularily in small scale combustion such as found in residential stoves, have high air pollution emissions of some important pollutants when compared to gas, oil, and even coal in many circumstances.

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