Download BGA (Ball Grid Array) by National Semiconductor Application Note 1126 2003 PDF

By National Semiconductor Application Note 1126 2003

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Grahmann, P. Joyez, M. H. Devoret, D. Esteve and C. Urbina, Adjustable nanofabricated atomic size contacts Rev. Sci. Inst. 67, 108-111 (1996). [22] E. Scheer, P. Joyez, D. Esteve, C. Urbina and M. H. Devoret, Conduction channels of superconducting quantum point contacts, to appear in Physica B. [23] E. Scheer, N. Agra:it, J. C. Cuevas, A. Levy Yeyati, B. Ludoph, A. Martin-Rodero, G. Rubio Bollinger, J. M. van Ruitenbeek and C. Urbina, The signature of chemical valence in the conduction through a single-atom contact, Nature 394, 154-157 (1998).

6. THERMAL ,CONTACTS AND HOT SPOTS In a thermal contact, electron and phonon mean free paths are smaller than the contact diameter d. Therefore, the lattice and electrons stay in equilibrium between themselves, but the temperature of this local equilibrium T{r) is much higher than the ambient temperature of the environment. 57) where the local thermal conductivity /'i, = /'i,{T{r)) and electrical conductivity a = a{T{r)). 57) are solved in a circular orifice with transformation to the oblate spheroidal coordinates (a = d/2) x = asinucoshvcoscp y = asinucoshvsincp z = acosusinhv.

12 3d plot of K-factor K(B,'Y) in a circular orifice. ) [32] and to scattering conditions concerning elastic (impurity) scattering [33]. Such scattering in itself does not lead to the nonlinearity of the J(V) but decreases the 19 Nonlinear Phenomena in Metallic Contacts phonon nonlinear part of ,p J I dV 2 as compared to the perfect ballistic regime. 47) scattering by phonons can be calculated as an effect proportional to (lid) 1/2 lie-ph, where Ii is the elastic (impurity) scattering length of electron.

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