Download Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy by George A. Olah PDF

By George A. Olah

A really invaluable evaluation on present and destiny strength resources and effort providers and an inspiring notion on methanol as a destiny carbon impartial strength service.

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Extra info for Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy

Sample text

Moving large amounts of natural gas by pipeline is relatively easy, but the process is not adaptable to transport natural gas from remote locations far from consumer markets such as Saudi Arabia to North America or Europe. Because of the gaseous state of natural gas, it occupies enormous volumes compared to liquid or solid fuels. For intercontinental transport, across oceans, natural gas is usually liquefied to yield liquefied natural gas (LNG). This process is, however, energy-intensive, and requires specially designed and highly expensive tankers that keep natural gas at or below its boiling point (–162 hC) in highly insulated, doublewalled tanks.

Coal the global coal production. Many countries are heavily dependent on coal for electricity production, including Poland (95%), South Africa (93%), Australia (77%), India (78%), and China (76%) [15]. In the coal-rich United States, 92% of the domestic coal production is used to generate 51% of the country’s electricity needs in giant coal-burning power-plants [16]. The heat created by coal combustion is used to vaporize water which, under high pressure and temperature, drives turbines connected to generators, the modern steam engines.

The 1973 crisis introduced a new period of oil market development, which lasted until the mid-1980s. It was characterized by vigorous efforts by the importing countries to reduce their dependence on oil. During much of this period these efforts were governed by high oil prices. In the first half of the 1980s, however, prices responded to the weakening market as oil supplies increased and demand continued to reflect the oil-savings measures achieved since the mid-1970s. New oil fields also went into production in Alaska and under the North Sea, weakening the monopoly of the OPEC cartel.

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