Download Basalts and Phase Diagrams: An Introduction to the by Stearns Morse PDF

By Stearns Morse

A ebook on part diagrams in igneous petrology, with the early elements of the chapters being user-friendly and the later components being complex. subject matters variety from uncomplicated structures akin to Anorthite-Albite to extra complicated fabric akin to an creation to Schreinemakers' principles.

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Additional info for Basalts and Phase Diagrams: An Introduction to the Quantitative Use of Phase Diagrams in Igneous Petrology

Sample text

The charge is quenched by setting the crucible in a pan of water, the resultant glass is broken and knocked out onto a paper by hammering the crucible, z the glass is crushed in a steel mortar to mix it, tramp steel is removed with a magnet, and the charge is returned to the crucible and melted again. A few fusions suffice to produce a homogeneous glass. Homogeneity is checked by examining an immersion mount of a bit of the crushed glass under the microscope; the glass particles should all have the same refractive index and be free of any inclusions of undissolved material.

Any other arbitrary restriction, such as on T (an isothermal restriction), would have the same effect. We may then rewrite the phase rule for isobaric conditions: in which the subscript p reminds us that the variance is reduced by one because of an isobaric restriction. , with no pressure control. We now need to evaluate c, and then cp, in order to evaluate the variance. We have already decided that the system Di-Ao is binary (c = 2), but let us consider some alternatives for the moment. The system contains only the elements Ca, Al, Mg, Si, and 0, so at worst it would have to be described in 5 components (quinary system).

It is to be noted that none of the mixtures studied within the system melts at a single temperature, but that all show a melting range beginning (in this case) somewhere near 1274°C and terminating at the liquidus curve. The same is true of virtually all rocks, which crystallize or melt completely over a range of temperature rather than at a point. This apparently innocent fact is one of fundamental importance in petrology, for it accounts for the possibility of magmas changing their composition by removal of crystals, or fractional crystallization, about which we shall have much to say.

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