By Steven F. Barrett, Daniel J. Pack
This textbook presents training scientists and engineers a primer at the Atmel AVR microcontroller. Our technique is to supply the basic talents to speedy wake up and working with this across the world well known microcontroller. The Atmel ATmega16 is used as a consultant pattern of the AVR line. the data you achieve at the ATmega16 could be simply translated to each different microcontroller within the AVR line. We disguise the most subsystems aboard the ATmega16, supplying a brief conception part via an outline of the similar microcontroller subsystem with accompanying and software program to workout the subsytem. In all examples, we use the interval. We finish with an in depth bankruptcy describing find out how to interface the microcontroller to a large choice of enter and output units.
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Extra resources for Atmel AVR Microcontroller Primer: Programming and Interfacing
Similar to the converter based on the integration principle, the disadvantage of this type of converter is the varying conversion time. 4 Parallel Conversion The last technique allows the quickest conversion time among the techniques we discussed. A parallel converter uses a large number of comparators and circuitry to simultaneously measure the input signal and convert it to a digital value. The obvious disadvantage of this technique is the cost involved in building the circuitry. 8(d) shows the architecture of the converter.
In summary, the ADC process has three steps for completion: sampling, quantization, and encoding. In the next section, we delve into four different technologies used to implement the ADC process. 1 A photodiode is a semiconductor device that provides an output current corresponding to the light impinging on its active surface. The photodiode is used with a transimpedance amplifier to convert the output current to an output voltage. 50 VDC of output voltage for the minimum rated light intensity.
The quantization of a sampled signal is how the signal is represented as one of quantization level. Suppose you have a single bit to represent an incoming signal. You only have two different numbers, 0 and 1. You may say that you can distinguish only low from high. Suppose you have 2 bits. You can represent four different levels, 00, 01, 10, and 11. What if you have 3 bits? You now can represent eight different levels: 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, and 111. Think of it as follows. When you had 2 bits, you were able to represent four different levels.