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By Sammy C. Letema

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Mamboleo slaughter house satellite STPs was abandoned in 1997, upon which generated sewage flow was connected to Kibos-Mamboleo sewer trunk line that feeds into Nyalenda STPs. The other industrial pre-treatment plants (Kisumu Cotton Mills and Kenya Breweries) are no longer in operation with the collapse of the factories. The projections show increasingly high flow of sewage to sewers in Kisumu between 2010 and 2030, which is attributed to the envisaged application of simplified sewerage in high density informal slum settlements (LVSWSB, 2005a, 2008).

They argue that privatisation would enhance efficiency, transfer financial burden from public to private investors, reduce poverty, and curb inequality in access to water and sanitary services (Castro, 2008). Privatisation of public utilities, however, has had dismal impacts on urban sewerage provision, accounting for a very small market segment (Bayliss, 2003; Budds & McGranahan, 2003; Kariuki & Schartz, 2005; McGranahan & Satterthwaite, 2006). Private sector, moreover, has been selective and inclined towards large-scale networks that combine water and sewerage, large cities, large economies and large middle-class being ‘cherry-picked’.

The high heavy metal concentrations are not attributed to domestic use alone, but from some industries located within the catchment of Bugolobi STPs. 5 per tonne, and the destination and use of sludge is not known. There is reuse of stabilised biosolids in Kisumu’s Kisat, with major users being sugarcane farmers, but the quality is not known. Nyalenda lacks anaerobic ponds, existing facultative ponds are not deslugeable, and drying beds. The biosolids are not recovered for reuse. 2. /d organic load, 26,000 dry weather flow, and 400 mg/l influent and 50 mg/l effluent BOD.

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