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By Committee on Ecological Impacts of Road Density, National Research Council

All levels of highway improvement - from development and use through autos to upkeep - impact actual and chemical soil stipulations, water stream, and air and water caliber, in addition to vegetation and animals. Roads and site visitors can regulate natural world habitat, reason vehicle-related mortality, abate animal migration, and disperse nonnative pest species of vegetation and animals. Integrating environmental issues into all stages of transportation is a vital, evolving procedure. The expanding knowledge of environmental matters has made street improvement extra complicated and debatable. during the last twenty years, the Federal road management and country transportation corporations have more and more famous the significance of the results of transportation at the ordinary surroundings. This file offers suggestions on how one can reconcile the several objectives of street improvement and environmental conservation. It identifies the ecological results of roads that may be evaluated within the making plans, layout, development, and upkeep of roads and provides a number of options to aid larger comprehend and deal with ecological affects of paved roads.

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Html xxiv Contents 4 AMELIORATING THE EFFECTS OF ROADS ................................... 98 Introduction, 98 Scale-Based Considerations of Environmental Mitigation, 99 Opportunities for Environmental Stewardship, 113 Summary, 116 5 LEGAL CONTEXT FOR PLANNING AND POLICY ........................ 117 Introduction, 117 Transportation Processes: How Transportation Is Planned and Projects Are Developed, 118 Federally Structured Regional and Local Planning, 119 Major Federal Environmental Laws, 130 Other Types of Laws, 149 Discussion of Laws and Ecological Concerns, 151 Issues, 163 Summary, 168 6 PLANNING AND ASSESSMENT .....................................................

Html Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. S. S. S. S. S. Environmental Protection Agency environmental policy statement Endangered Species Act xix Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. html xx Abbreviations ETAP FHWA FLH FPPA FTA GIS HEP HGM IRI ISTEA LARCH LOS LRTP LWCFA MBTA MOU MPO NAAQS NAS NCHRP NEPA NGO NHPA NHS NOAA NOX NPDES NPS NRC NWP PM10 ROD SAMP SEA SEF SEMP SIP SPGP STIP environmental technical advisory team Federal Highway Administration federal lands highway Farmland Protection Policy Act Federal Transit Administration geographic information system habitat evaluation procedure hydrogeomorphic method international roughness index Intermodal Surface Transportation Equity Act landscape ecological analysis and rules for the configuration of habitat model level of service long-range transportation plan Land and Water Conservation Fund Act Migratory Bird Treaty Act memorandum of understanding metropolitan planning organization National Ambient Air Quality Standards National Academy of Sciences National Cooperative Highway Research Program National Environmental Policy Act nongovernmental organization National Historic Preservation Act national highway system National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration nitrogen oxides national pollutant discharge elimination system National Park Service National Research Council nationwide permit particulate matter up to 10 micrometers in diameter record of decision special area management plan street edge alternatives southeastern ecological framework Strategic Environmental Management Program state implementation plan state program general permit state transportation improvement plan Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.

But even more, it was a pleasure and joy to get to know them and work with them all. The committee and I gratefully acknowledge and thank the staff of the National Research Council for their support. Suzanne van Drunick served as project director and provided gracious leadership throughout the project. Bryan Shipley provided beneficial research and report preparation. Liza Hamilton provided outstanding venues and programs for the meetings and help in preparing the report. David Policansky provided helpful guidance and counsel.

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