By Liba Taub
В книге рассматриваются греческий и римский подходы и отношение к этой широкой дисциплине, которая в классический период включала не только "погоду", но и явления типа землетрясений или комет, которые сегодня были бы расценены как геологический, астрономический или сейсмологический фактор.
Учитывая господство сельского хозяйства в древнем обществе, не удивительно, что так много было написано о предсказаниях и объяснениях погоды, и о том, как противостоять против капризов и жестокости погоды и как добиться её расположения. Но изучение метеорологии в древности было не только практическим вопросом. Поэты, философы и врачи были также интересовались метеорологией, излагая важные вопросы о природе мира, или, иными словами, о единстве космических явлений, а также об отношениях между метеорологией и божественным.
Автор анализирует различные древние тексты, в которых встречаются метеорологические или научные идеи: от эпоса Гомера и дидактической поэзии Гесиода, Арата и Лукреция – до работ, типа «Метеорологии» Аристотеля и трактатов Гиппократа и Сенеки.Образцы сканов:
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Additional info for Ancient Meteorology
86 Otto Neugebauer, in A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy, gave an indication of the use of astronomical knowledge for weather prediction. He noted that ‘the Almagest contains several sections which were only added by Ptolemy in order not to omit from his works topics which traditionally belonged to mathematical astronomy’. 11) which is of little astronomical signiﬁcance, dealing with ‘the determination of certain angles which were considered, apparently by a very old tradition, of importance for weather prognostication’.
According to Eudoxus, unsettled weather. 66 According to Democritus, the sky is turbulent, and the sea generally also. 5. [at] 151⁄2 hours: The star in the western shoulder of Orion rises in the evening. 69 Ptolemy mentions Metrodorus (it is not clear if this is Metrodorus of Chios, fourth century BCE), Konon (ﬁrst half of third century BCE, teacher of Dositheus), Hipparchus (190–120 BCE) and Caesar (here possibly referring to the work of Sosigenes, c. 70 How did one qualify to be listed in Ptolemy’s parape¯gma?
52 In any case, it seems likely that the work is an early product of the Peripatetic school; it is worth mentioning that it is always found in manuscripts containing other Peripatetic works. If this loose dating is correct, On Weather Signs predates those examples of parape¯gmata which survive. The author presents a variety of signs of weather. For example, as signs of rain the author offers: ‘If there is a cloud in front of the setting sun which splits up its rays, this is a sign of stormy weather.