By Luis B. Oliveira, Jorge R. Fernandes, Igor M. Filanovsky, Chris J. M. Verhoeven, Manuel M. Silva
The subsequent are a few positive factors of research and layout of Quadrature Oscillators make it various from the present literature on digital oscillators: (1) specialize in quadrature oscillators with actual quadrature and coffee phase-noise, required via smooth verbal exchange structures; (2) an in depth comparative research of quadrature LC and RC oscillators, together with cross-coupled LC quasi-sinusoidal oscillators, cross-coupled RC leisure oscillators, a quadrature RC oscillator-mixer, and two-integrator oscillators; (3) an intensive research of the influence of mismatches at the phase-error and the phase-noise; (4) the realization that quadrature RC oscillators could be a functional substitute to LC oscillators while sector and value may be minimized (in cross-coupled RC oscillators either the quadrature-error and phase-noise are diminished, while in LC oscillators the coupling raises the phase-noise.
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Extra info for Analysis and Design of Quadrature Oscillators (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)
2 Phase-noise in Quadrature Relaxation Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction This chapter is dedicated to the study of quadrature relaxation oscillators, which consist of two cross-coupled RC relaxation oscillators . In this book we will use interchangeably the designations cross-coupled relaxation oscillator and quadrature relaxation oscillator.
The carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) can also be used to specify the oscillator phasenoise. 2 Quality Factor The Quality Factor (Q) is the most common figure of merit for oscillators, and it is related to the total oscillator phase-noise. Q is usually defined within the context of second order systems. There are three possible definitions of Q : (1) Leeson in  considers a single resonator network with −3 dB bandwidth B and resonance frequency 0 (Fig. 13), 20 2 Transceiver Architectures and RF Blocks Fig.
In this case, intermodulation due to two input signals ( f 1 and f 2 ), can be close to DC ( f 2 − f 1 and f 1 − f 2 ), and lie in the signal band (Fig. 23). Thus, a mixer that converts directly to the baseband has very stringent IP2 requirements. Another specification concerning distortion is the 1-dB compression point. This is the output power when it is one dB less than the output power of an extrapolated linear amplifier with the same gain (Fig. 24). The conversion gain of a mixer can be defined in terms of either voltage or power.