By James G. Speight
There's just one substance recognized to mankind that could reason wars, impact international economies, and make international locations wealthy: petroleum. yet how a lot does the common individual, even the typical engineer, find out about it? This e-book describes the petroleum in easy-to-understand language for either the layperson and engineer alike. From the economics of attempting to find oil and fuel, getting it out of the floor, into pipelines, into refineries, and, eventually, into your gasoline tank, this ebook covers the petroleum like no different therapy earlier than.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Petroleum Technology, Economics, and Politics
There are cases in which evaporites (salt, anhydrite, and gypsum) act as effective sealants. The cap rock has a far lower permeability than the reservoir rock, but it is equally true that cap rocks have very high capillary pressures while those of reservoir rocks are much lower. The capillary pressure is the pressure required to cause a fluid to displace from the openings in a rock by another fluid with which it is not miscible. Capillary pressure is dependent on the size of the openings, the interfacial tension between the two fluids, and the contact angle for the system.
Once the oil has accumulated in the reservoir rock, gravitational forces are presumed to be dominant, thereby causing the oil, gas, 42 PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY, ECONOMICS, AND POLITICS and water to segregate according to their relative densities in the upper parts of the reservoir (Landes, 1959). If the pores in the reservoir rock are of uniform size and evenly distributed, there are transition zones, from the pores occupied entirely by water to pores occupied mainly by oil to those pores occupied mainly by gas.
005 Darcy and several Darcys. It should be noted that pores may be, at best, only a millimeter or so in width, whereas fossil and solution cavities may sometimes be 30 to 50 times wider. Many joints and fractures are probably only a millimeter across, although they may extend for considerable distances. ORIGIN AND OCCURRENCE OF OIL 39 Petroleum accumulations are generally found in relatively coarse-grained porous and permeable rocks that contain little or no insoluble organic matter. It is highly unlikely that petroleum originated from organic matter of which no trace remains now.