By David G. Andrews
A quantitative advent to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual rules. This version has been introduced thoroughly up to date, and now encompasses a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather switch which builds upon fabric brought in previous chapters, giving the coed a extensive knowing of a few of the actual thoughts underlying this most crucial and topical topic. not like many different books on atmospheric technology, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric functions are constructed in most cases within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The e-book is a necessary source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technology, meteorology, physics, Earth technological know-how, planetary technology, or utilized arithmetic path.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics
57) implies that condensation of a small quantity of vapour increases its radius slightly, and so the droplet continues to grow by further condensation. On the other hand, if a small amount of evaporation occurs at the equilibrium radius, the droplet continues to shrink by evaporation, eventually disappearing altogether. 1. 45 Cloud formation Fig. 12 Plot of relative humidity RH = e/es over a spherical droplet in unstable equilibrium, as a function of droplet radius a, at 5 ◦ C. Equivalently, it shows the (unstable) equilibrium radius of a spherical drop as a function of the ambient RH, at 5 ◦ C.
Find δT. Comment on the possible implications of this result for climate change. 2 A balloon is required to carry an instrument payload of 100 kg to an altitude where the pressure is 12 hPa and the temperature is 230 K. The total mass of the payload plus the balloon is 150 kg. What approximate radius of balloon is needed, assuming that after being charged with a measured ‘bubble’ of helium at launch it just becomes spherical at ﬂoat altitude? What are the relative merits and disadvantages of balloons, satellites and aircraft as instrument platforms?
Where ρv is the vapour density, f is the vapour-ﬂux vector and D is a diffusion coefﬁcient, assumed constant. 14. However, water vapour is lost only by condensation at r = a, so for r > a this ﬂux must be independent of r and equal to the rate of increase of mass of the droplet, dMl /dt. Hence dρv dMl /dt 1 , = dr 4π D r2 which can be integrated from r = a to r = ∞ to give ρv (a) = ρv (∞) − 1 dMl . 4π Da dt Therefore, using the ideal gas law ρv = e/(Rv T) for the vapour, e(a) dMl 4π Da e(∞) = 4πDa [ρv (∞) − ρv (a)] = − , dt Rv T(∞) T(a) where e(∞) and T(∞) are the vapour pressure and temperature far from the droplet and e(a) and T(a) are the same quantities at its surface.