By Paul Lennon
This corpus-based learn of allusions within the British press indicates the variety of goals reporters allude to - from Shakespeare to television soaps, from Jane Austen to Hillary Clinton, from hymns to nursery rhymes, proverbs and riddles. It analyzes the linguistic kinds allusions take and demonstrates how allusions functionality meaningfully in discourse. It explores the character of the history cultural and intertextual wisdom allusions call for of readers and units out the processing levels curious about figuring out an allusion. Allusion is built-in into latest theories of oblique language and associated with idioms, wordplay and metaphor.
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Extra resources for Allusions in the Press: An Applied Linguistic Study
The idea of common ground depends on the idea of membership of a cultural community, which in turn implies the possession of certain expertise and a common specialised lexicon. Clark and Marshall (1981) maintained that the community lexicon is supplemented by a community encyclopaedia in which the information members infer from community membership is organised. This information is graded according to how sure members are that other members will know it too. Cultural communities usually form nested sets based on such variables as nationality, residence, education, occupation, employment, hobby, language, religion, ethnicity, subculture, gender (Clark 1996: 103–108).
E. verbatim reproduc- 20 Introduction tion). The criterion can be relaxed so that two or three word combinations from the poem are compared with collocations of the same words in the Bible, allowing for permutations of order and separation by, say, two intervening words. The matching procedure can also be applied to specific areas of the Bible to localise allusions a poem may make. In identifying allusions in newspapers, however, it is essential to mimic the conditions of newspaper reading to test for allusion, at very least so that typographic factors are not ignored, nor visual material which may accompany an allusion.
Allusion may be one way of modifying existing schemata and inducing new ones. An example is provided by Ricks (1992: 302), who, in a study of allusion in the writings of the language philosopher J. L. Austin, found there was often play made with proverbial sayings. Particularly common was allusive blending of two proverbial sayings. An example Ricks gives is “out of the fire into the frying pan – but still, of course, any frying pan in a fire” (Austin 1979: 77). This reverses “out of the frying pan into the fire” by means of lexical permutation, and then tampers with “any port in a storm” by replacing “port” by “frying pan” and “storm” by “fire”.