By Aleš Prokop, Rakesh K. Bajpai, Mark E. Zappi
Algae provide strength to supply renewable chemical compounds and fuels utilizing solar power and carbon dioxide from surroundings or in flue gases whereas concurrently decreasing the iteration of greenhouse gases. on account that those could be grown on marginal lands with micronutrients and macronutrients frequently found in waste streams, algae-based chemical substances and fuels don't compete with meals. nonetheless large-scale construction of algae-based fuels and chemical substances faces substantial technological and good value demanding situations and it'll via necessity require a biorefinery process in which all of the attainable algal parts are switched over into value-added compounds. the current sequence on algal biorefineries represents a discussion board for reporting the state-of-the-art of other applied sciences in addition to the most recent advances during this box. the quantity II of this sequence enhances the quantity I by way of the present cutting-edge. diversified chapters during this quantity deal with various concerns starting from genetically modifies algae to new items to life-cycle research of algal products.
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Additional info for Algal Biorefineries: Volume 2: Products and Refinery Design
2011). g. in agriculture), not all of it may be directly applicable to industrial uses of GMMs that are either contained in traditional fermentation processes or conducted in controlled outdoor reactors; however what has been learned from such studies may present baseline information to help assess potential adverse effects should there ever be a large-scale accidental release of industrial GMMs from production vessels. Viebahn et al. (2009) presents a fairly recent, quite comprehensive, review of literature relating to possible survival of GMMs in the environment, as well as potential ecosystem effects and impacts on non-target species.
2012; USDOE 2010; Trentacoste et al. 2014). Because the processes required to grow algae, harvest the organisms and purify the product tend to be rather expensive, algal production has historically been mostly limited to specialty chemical or pharmaceutical products, characterized by low volumes and high profit margins, or products like nutritional supplements that don’t require as much downstream processing as do specialty chemicals. Similar genetic modifications are being considered for industrially-useful strains of microalgae to enable their use to produce commodity fuels and chemicals, especially to improve productivity or efficiency to overcome economic and other factors that have hindered development of the technology (USDOE 2010).
However, R&D use of intergeneric microorganisms in the open environment, or in vessels or facilities judged not to be suitably contained, requires notification to EPA at least 60 days before the proposed use, under an application known as a TSCA Experimental Release Application (TERA; described in more detail below). The key issue in determining if an activity qualifies for the R&D exemption is whether or not it will take place in a “contained structure”. 3, and includes any “building or vessel which effectively surrounds and encloses the microorganism and includes features designed to restrict the microorganism from leaving” (emphasis added).