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Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2005) 8. 45 MHz. In: ION GPS’99, 4–17 Sept. 1999. Nashville, TN Chapter 2 Performance of Digital Communication Over Fading Channels In this chapter, bit error rate (BER) performance of some of digital modulation schemes and different wireless communication techniques is evaluated in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and fading channels. Further, the BER performance of different diversity techniques such as selective diversity, EGC, and MRC is also evaluated in Rayleigh fading channel.

4 Channel Capacity 13 10 AWGN Rayleigh fading 9 8 Capacity (bit/s/Hz) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -10 -5 0 5 10 SNR (dB) 15 20 25 30 Fig. 8327. 6 Outage Probability of a Fading Channel A mobile user will experience rapid changes in SNR as fading channels lead to an oscillating SNR at different locations. As such, the channel can be characterized by an average SNR and BER can be computed by using this. If BER is below a 14 1 Introduction threshold, then it is not the primary concern for many applications. A more meaningful measure is outage probability, which is the percentage of time that an acceptable quality of communication is not available.

2  N c À1 X k¼0  Nc À 1 ðNc À 1 À kÞ! ðc þ d ÞÀðNc ÀkÞ ð2d ÞÀðNc þkÞ ð2:26Þ where k stands for the number of users, Nc denotes the number of subcarriers, and the parameters c and d are defined by 38 2 Performance of Digital Communication Over Fading Channels 10 Bit Error Rate 10 10 10 10 10 0 -1 -2 -3 DS-CDMA SFH-CDMA MC-CDMA with 64 subcarriers -4 -5 0 5 10 15 Number of users 20 25 30 Fig. 13 BER performance of DS-CDMA, SFH-CDMA, and MC-CDMA in Rayleigh fading channels at NEb0 ¼ 10 dB 1 Nc kþ1 ¼ ; þ 4E 2c 4 b= N d¼ pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi c2 þ 2c ð2:27Þ 0 A theoretical BER performance comparison of DS-CDMA, SFH-CDMA, and MC-CDMA in Rayleigh fading channels at NEb0 ¼ 10 dB is shown in Fig.

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