By Teresa J. Bandosz
Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation offers a complete precis of the environmental purposes of activated carbons. in an effort to comprehend the elimination of contaminants and toxins on activated carbons, the theoretical bases of adsorption phenomena are mentioned. the results of pore constitution and floor chemistry also are addressed from either technological know-how and engineering views. every one bankruptcy offers examples of genuine purposes with an emphasis at the position of the carbon floor in adsorption or reactive adsorption. the sensible features addressed during this ebook conceal the large spectrum of functions from air and water cleansing and effort garage to conflict gasoline removing and biomedical applications.
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Extra info for Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation
Once this fraction is in gas phase, these species may react among themselves, depending on the treatment temperature and residence time, to yield secondary (cracking) products. At medium temperatures (say 773 K), there are few secondary reactions, and the gas phase consists mainly of stabilized primary products. Consequently, the gas composition is highly dependent on the precursor used under mild conditions. As the temperature is increased, the secondary reactions become more important, yielding at extreme conditions (above 1273 K) methane, hydrogen and soot If the temperature is 1073-1173 K, intermediates of soot formation (stabilized polyaromatics) can appear, together with oleflns, methane, hydrogen , water and carbon oxides.
Fig. 16 shows the porosity developed in terms of surface area vs. the heat treatment temperature and Fig. 17 shows the particle dimensions vs. the heat treatment temperature for an oak wood precursor, together with the variation undergone when only thermal pyrolysis is applied. It can be observed (Fig. 16) that micropore development begins a little above 473 K, increasing sharply and attaining a maximum at around 573 K, with a BET surface area of 1500 m2 g"1. This micropore increase runs parallel to particle dilation (Fig.
Granular activated carbons can be divided in two groups: • Unshaped or broken GAC • Shaped GAC of a specific form Shaped GAC is a carbon, which has been processed to have an specific shape such as that of a cylinder. These cylinders are obtained either by pelletisation or by extrusion of powder carbon and binders. Broken GAC, on the other hand, is the name given to irregularly shaped particles, which have merely been crushed and screened. Due to the fact that the size of briquettes formed from PAC and binders is normally very large, these briquettes must be crushed and milled again, as a result of which they acquire a broken shape.