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By Lower S. K.

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Extra info for Acid-base equilibria of the aquatic environment(en)(32s)

Sample text

Mixture of an acid and its conjugate base . . . General case of a weak acid/base system, using [SID] Example calculations involving conjugate species . Diprotic acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Buffer solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Titrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 20 22 Ionization fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . .

6 Dissociation of weak acids . Titration . . . . . Strong bases . . . . . Proton free energy and pH . . . 1 Strong acids and bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The strong ion difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weak monoprotic acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Pure acid in water . . . . . . . . . . Calculations on mixtures of acids . . . .

The term acid rain is therefore taken to mean rain whose pH is controlled by substances other than CO2 and which can lower the pH into the range of 3-4. The major culprits are sulfuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids. Most of the H2 SO4 comes from the photooxidation of SO2 released from the burning of fossil fuels and from industrial operations such as smelting. As shown in Fig. , the atmosphere receives both acidic and basic substances from natural sources (volcanic emissions, salt spray, windblown dust and microbial metabolism) as well as from pollution.

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