By Lorenzo Magnani
This quantity explores abductive cognition, a massive yet, at the very least till the 3rd zone of the final century, missed subject in cognition. The booklet goals at expanding wisdom approximately inventive and specialist inferences. The examine of those high-levelmethods of abductive reasoning is located on the crossroads of philosophy, good judgment, epistemology, man made intelligence, neuroscience, cognitive psychology, animal cognition and evolutionary theories; that's, on the center of cognitive technology. Philosophers of technology within the 20th century have frequently distinct among the inferential procedures energetic within the good judgment of discovery and those lively within the common sense of justification. so much have concluded that no good judgment of inventive tactics exists and, additionally, rational version of discovery is very unlikely. briefly, clinical artistic inferences are irrational and there's no “reasoning” to hypotheses. nonetheless, a little research within the quarter of man-made intelligence has proven that tools for discovery can be discovered which are computationally enough for rediscovering – or getting to know for the 1st time – empirical or theoretical legislation and theorems.
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Extra info for Abductive Cognition: The Epistemological and Eco-Cognitive Dimensions of Hypothetical Reasoning
This formalization of the inductive support is also called confirmation theory: it does not deal with the problem of individuating the ways of “generating” inductive hypotheses but refers to a logic of hypothesis “evaluation”. Abduction creates or selects hypotheses; from these hypotheses consequences are derived by deduction that are compared with the available data by induction. This perspective on hypothesis testing in terms of induction is also known in philosophy of science as the “hypothetico-deductive method” [Hempel, 1966] and is related to the idea of confirmation of scientific hypotheses, 22 23 I have illustrated the problem of diagnosis, therapy, and monitoring and the related AI computational programs in [Magnani, 2001b, chapter four].
This old model, embedded in the new formal framework, acquires the possibility of discriminating certain explanations as preferred to others. Reiter’s consistency-based diagnosis [Reiter, 1987] is devoted to ascertain why a correctly designed system is not working according to its features. Because certain components may fail, the system description also contains some abnormality predicates (the absence of them will render the description inconsistent with an observation of an incorrect behavior).
If for example such a theory is simpler and 31 32 The theory also fruitfully applies, with slight modifications, to many other fields like conceptual combination; adversarial problem-solving, when one has to infer an opponent’s intentions; analogical reasoning; jury decisions in murder trials: contemporary debates about why the dinosaurs became extinct; psychological experiments on how beginning students learn physics; ethical deliberation; emotional decision. On the relationiships between probabilism and explanationism and on the fact that probabilism is not appropriate to model abductive reasoning of actual individual human agents cf.