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By Arthur D. Efland

Fresh debates at the position of the humanities in American lifestyles has refocused consciousness on paintings schooling in faculties. during this publication, the writer places present debate and issues in a well-researched ancient point of view. He examines the institutional settings of artwork schooling all through Western heritage, the social forces that experience formed it and the evolution and influence of trade streams of impact on current perform. The e-book treats the visible arts on the subject of advancements commonly schooling and specific emphasis is put on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and at the social context that has affected our idea of artwork this day. The e-book is meant as a prime textual content in background of paintings schooling classes, as a supplemental textual content in classes in artwork schooling tools and historical past of schooling, and as a source for college kids, professors and researchers.

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6 The Church actively suppressed all remnants of pagan culture. Along with the arts, learning itself entered a period of decline. Yet some elements of pagan culture were preserved by monks and scribes, many of whom were educated in the classical tradition. Writers like Augustine were familiar with Stoicism, as well as the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and Plotinus, and they saw much in these doctrines that was in accord with the revelations of Scripture. In Augustine's view one does not achieve understanding exclusively by the exercise of reason.

Among the matters that should concern the statesman is the impact of the arts upon the polis. Plato observed that hearing poetry and seeing beautiful architecture and statuary are among the higher pleasures open to the citizen, but such pleasure is not a sufficient test for the efficacy of art. Plato was disturbed by the fact that many works of tragic drama portray people in highly aroused emotional states that, in turn, evoke an emotional response in the audience. Plays about wise and serene personalities did not garner much interest in ancient Greece, any more than they would from a television audience today.

Depending on the social setting, patrons might have higher or lower status than the artists they support, or the two roles might be equal in importance. For example, a typical medieval patron, a bishop or cardinal, would have played an active role in determining the form, content, and Page 5 aesthetic features of a work being commissioned. The artist's role was limited to solving the technical problems associated with making the object. By Renaissance times, patrons had begun to leave the artistic decisions to the artist, though the artist chosen by a patron was usually one who shared a similar set of beliefs.

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