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By Eliot Deutsch, Ron Bontekoe

This remarkable quantity bargains scholars, lecturers and normal readers a whole introductory survey of the key non-western philosophical traditions.

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2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Owen, Stephen 1992: Readings in Chinese Literary Thought (Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University). Schwartz, B. I. 1985: The World of Thought in Ancient China (Cambridge: Harvard University Press). < previous page page_23 next page > < previous page page_24 next page > Page 24 2 A History of Indian Philosophy J. N. Mohanty Origins According to the Hindu tradition, the origin of the various philosophical ideas that were developed in the philosophical systems lies in the Vedas, a body of texts that seem to have been composed around two thousand years Before the Common Era (BCE).

Founded by Mahavira, an older contemporary of the Buddha, who is regarded as the last of the perfected men recognized in the school as prophets, Jainism denied the existence of a creator of the universe, looked upon the world as consisting of infinite souls and matter, construed the embodiment of souls as being due to karmic matter (thus presenting a completely new, materialistic, theory of karma), and believed in the possibility of the individual attaining perfection through austere practices and contemplative knowledge.

His ability to synthesize three previous currents of Legalist thought concerning law, statecraft, and power seems also to have been influenced by Xunzi. Yet the confluence of ideas that made Han Fei a great Legalist thinker was anti-Confucian and his argumentation is predicated on a set of principles Confucians consider amoral and antithetical to humanism. Ironically, despite the predominance of Confucianism as the official Han ideology, it was the Legalized Confucian orthodoxy rather than the tender-minded Daoist Confucian humanism that was favored in the court.

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